Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Annual Salaries of Top US Government Officials

Annual Salaries of Top US Government Officials Traditionally, government service has embodied a spirit of serving the American people with a degree of volunteerism. Indeed, the salaries these top government officials tend to be lower than those for private-sector executives in similar positions. For example, the $400,000 annual salary of the president of the United States reflects a great degree of â€Å"volunteerism† compared to the nearly $14 million average salary of corporate CEOs. Executive Branch President of the United States 2019: $400,0002000: $200,000 The presidents salary was increased from $200,000 to $400,000 in 2001. The presidents current salary of $400,000 has an additional $50,000 expense allowance. As commander in chief of the world’s most modern and expensive military, the president is considered the most powerful political figure in the world. Having control of a number of nuclear weapons second only to that of Russia, the president is also responsible for the health of the world’s largest economy and the development and application of U.S. domestic and foreign policy.   The salary of the president of the United States is set by Congress, and as required by Article II, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, may not be changed during the president’s term in office. There is no mechanism to automatically adjust the presidents salary; Congress must pass legislation authorizing it. Since legislation enacted in 1949, the president also gets a non-taxable $50,000 annual expense account for official purposes. Since enactment of the Former Presidents Act of 1958, former presidents have received a lifetime annual pension and other benefits including staff and office allowances, travel expenses, Secret Service protection and more. Can Presidents Refuse the Salary? America’s Founding Fathers never intended for presidents to become wealthy as a result of their service. Indeed, the first presidential salary of $25,000 was a compromise solution reached with delegates to the Constitutional Convention who argued that the president should not be paid or compensated in any way. Over the years, however, some presidents who were independently wealthy when elected have chosen to reject their salaries. When he took office in 2017, 45th President Donald Trump joined first President George Washington in vowing not to accept the presidential salary. However, neither of them could actually do that. Article II of the Constitution- through its use of the word â€Å"shall†- requires that the president must be paid: The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. In 1789, Congress decided that the president did not get to choose whether to accept the salary. As an alternative, President Trump agreed to keep $1 of his salary. Since then, he has carried through on his promise by donating his $100,000 quarterly salary payments to various federal agencies, including the National Parks Service and Department of Education. Prior to Trump’s gesture, Presidents John F. Kennedy and Herbert Hoover donated their salaries to various charities and social causes. Vice President of the United States 2019: $235,1002000: $181,400 The vice presidents salary is decided separately from that of the president. Unlike the president, the vice president gets the automatic cost of living adjustment given to other federal employees as set annually by Congress. The vice president gets the same retirement benefits as those paid to other federal employees under the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS). Cabinet Secretaries 2019: $210,7002010: $199,700 The salaries of the secretaries of the 15 federal departments that comprise the  President’s Cabinet  are set annually by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) and Congress. The cabinet secretaries- as well as the White House chief of staff, Environmental Protection Agency’s administrator, the director of the Office of Management and Budget, the U.N. ambassador and the U.S. trade representative- are all paid the same base salary. As of fiscal year 2019, all of these officials were paid $210,700 per year.   Legislative Branch - US Congress Rank-and-File Senators and Representatives 2019: $174,0002000: $141,300 Speaker of the House 2019: $223,5002000: $181,400 House and Senate Majority and Minority Leaders 2019: $193,4002000: $156,900 For purposes of compensation, the 435 members of Congress–Senators and Representatives–are treated like other federal employees and are paid according to the Executive and Senior Executive pay schedules administered by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). The OPM pay schedules for all federal employees are set annually by Congress. Since 2009, Congress has voted not to accept the annual automatic cost of living raise paid to federal employees. Even if Congress as a whole were to decide to accept the annual raise, individual members are free to turn it down. Many myths surround the retirement benefits of Congress. However, just like other federal employees, members of Congress elected since 1984 are covered by the Federal Employees Retirement System. Those elected prior to 1984 are covered by terms of the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS). Judicial Branch Chief Justice of the United States 2019: $267,0002000: $181,400 Associate Justices of the Supreme Court 2019: $255,3002000: $173,600   District Judges 2019 $210,900 Circuit Judges 2019 $223,700 Like the members of Congress, federal judges–including Supreme Court justices–are paid according to the OPM’s Executive and Senior Executive pay schedules. In addition, federal judges get the same annual cost of living adjustment given to other federal employees. Under Article III of the Constitution, the compensation of the Supreme Court justices â€Å"shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.† However, the salaries of lower federal judges may be adjusted without direct constitutional constraints. The retirement benefits of Supreme Court justices are indeed â€Å"supreme.† Retired justices are entitled to a lifetime pension equal to their highest full salary. In order to qualify for a full pension, retiring justices must have served for a minimum of 10 years provided the sum of the justices age and years of Supreme Court service totals 80.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Learn About Herrerasaurus, One of the First Dinosaurs

Learn About Herrerasaurus, One of the First Dinosaurs One of first dinosaurs ever to walk the earth, theres some dispute about whether Herrerasaurus was even technically a dinosaur at all- that is, this meat-eater may well have predated the split between ornithischian (bird-hipped) and saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs, which could conceivably have made it a very advanced archosaur rather than a true dinosaur. Whatever the case, its clear from Herrerasaurus predatory arsenal- including sharp teeth, three-fingered hands, and a bipedal gait- that it was an active and very dangerous hunter, even making allowances for its relatively small size (only about 100 pounds, max). Origins of the Earliest Dinosaurs As far as we know, the earliest dinosaurs evolved in South America during the middle Triassic period, when Herrerasaurus lived, and then gradually spread to other parts of the globe (which wasnt as challenging as it would be today, since most of the earths landmasses were clustered together in the giant continents of Laurasia and Gondwana). In fact, the fossil beds where Herrerasaurus was discovered later yielded another famous proto-dinosaur dating from a few million years earlier, Eoraptor, which is now considered by many experts to be the first genuine dinosaur; another notable early dinosaur genus is the comparably sized Staurikosaurus. All of these early genera present a huge challenge to paleontologists trying to reconstruct the dinosaur family tree. For now, the bulk of the opinion is that Herrerasaurus and pals were true saurischians, the family of dinosaurs that later gave rise to more advanced theropods (like Tyrannosaurus Rex and Velociraptor) and the giant sauropods and titanosaurs of the later Mesozoic Era. The basic issue at stake is whether dinosaurs as a whole are a monophyletic or a paraphyletic group, a question thats way too technical and controversial to try to address here! What was Herrerasaurus Prey? If Herrerasaurus was, in fact, one of the worlds first dinosaurs, what did it prey on? Well, this meat-eater did co-exist with one of the first identified herbivorous dinosaurs, the slightly smaller Pisanosaurus, which may well have figured on its dinner menu. Other candidates include small therapsids (mammal-like reptiles) and a family of plant-eating archosaurs known as rhynchosaurs (a good candidate being the contemporary Hyperodapedon). And while there were no larger dinosaurs than Herrerasaurus in middle Triassic South America, the same doesnt apply to rauisuchids like the enormous Saurosuchus, which may have helped keep Herrerasaurus populations in check. Name: Herrerasaurus (Greek for Herreras lizard); pronounced heh-RARE-ah-SORE-us Habitat: Woodlands of South America Historical Period: Middle Triassic (230 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 10 feet long and 100 pounds Diet: Meat Distinguishing Characteristics: Sharp teeth; ridge on snout; three-fingered hands with claws

Friday, February 14, 2020

English (reading) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

English (reading) - Essay Example For those who require serious medical attention, the situation is even more pathetic since they expectedly ring up higher medical bills. â€Å"Almost 30% of the U.S. population either had a high financial burden of healthcare costs or were uninsured.† (Cunningham, 2006). According to (U.S. Government, 2009), the average household spent 2500$ on out-of-pocket medical expenses. Also tight economic conditions result in a great number of layoffs and medical expenses become quite difficult to bear for the unemployed persons. So the help from the government naturally becomes mandatory to resolve the issue. There is a huge body of evidence suggesting the healthcare issues, to be the ultimate responsibility of the government, since the healthcare expenses are spiraling out of control. Who is going to take all the blame if even the government, with all its powers and resources becomes impassive in such circumstances? Recently in November 2009, President Obama finally got the healthcare reform passed. The point of the bill is to make healthcare a completely government-controlled system. Still the bill seems a bit likely to relieve the problem because many families would still find their healthcare expenses rise beyond what they feel they can easily afford. â€Å"I ended up spending over 4000$ out of my own pocket despite having what’s considered high quality, employer-sponsored health insurance.† (Bradford, 2010). Also the government plans to increase the healthcare costs of the average American family by 4000$. â€Å"For the average single American, the cost of healthcare insurance today is about $4,600. The report found that this cost will rise to $8,200 in 2019.† (Gingrich, 2009). Still the bill is an innovative approach from the government to taper the healthcare crisis. The main problem is a group of corrupt people who are keen to maintain the sour issues. â€Å"High-ri sk individuals face notorious difficulty in accessing private health

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Information Technology Sub-sector Analysis Essay

Information Technology Sub-sector Analysis - Essay Example Porters four analysis gives two dimensions that define the strategies. One is the competitive advantage source, and two is the scope of the advantage. The first one comprises of product differentiation or low-cost approach. The second one consists of narrow or broad approach. When crossed the dimensions gives the porters four business strategies. To win competitive advantage, the IT organization should apply cost focus in a small group of the target section. A Cost Focus strategy usually emerges as a competitive move, at times to challenge a certain competitor. A smaller IT firm can as well gain entry to a market by competing on cost within a particular niche. Competition in the mobile application industry has lead to the rise in a totally new product called smartphones that have greater functionality as compared to normal mobile phones due to their capability of running mobile apps. The cost of these smartphones is not over exaggerated to discourage the customers from buying them. The IT organizations maintain lesser cost across different product offerings. An analysis of competitors cost should be carried out prior to setting products costs. For instance, by 2010, the mobile apps industry was highly flooded as new competitors got into the market saturating it with several varieties of utilitarian and lifestyle apps (Tarnacha & Maitland, 2006). In most instances, apps are designed by third-party developers like companies that wish to advertize their products, or by freelance designers who trade their apps at a profit. The major operating systems, Android and Apple, each have an equivalent dedicated marketplace due to its subsidized costs. Limiting Apple policies with regards to app development in the preliminary stage have had a verifiable effect on the iOS apps market. A larger percentage of all mobile app developers have a preference for developing apps for the Android operating system whereas a smaller percentage prefer to do so for Apple’s iOS

Friday, January 24, 2020

History of Still-Life :: Visual Arts Paintings Art

History of Still-Life Flanders C16- Installed quite religious and common settings into the pieces, the extremely detailed oil on canvas works were often home to kitchen-like objects and utensils. Different foods such as cabbages, fish and hares were used especially to capture reflection from the surrounding light, thus creating a very real, almost touchable effect. Drink glasses were layered repeatedly to produce a realistic transparency; yet another method in generating such detailed realism in the piece. Dutch C17-In this period, the artists had not completely cast off and thrown away any such relation to religion; they just concentrated sorely on the idea of symbolism and reflection of light. To a modern-day viewer, the still-life would appear to be an assortment of strange objects placed on a wooden table. But to the seventeenth- century Dutch observer, the paintings conveyed the theme of vanitas: objects that symbolized the vanity of worldly things and the brevity of life. The skull and bones refer to death, the books and writing instruments to excessive pride through learning, and the fragile glass goblet of wine to temporary pleasure. A golden cup on its side would suggest immoderate wealth, and a man smoking a pipe displays idleness. The obsessive layering of oil paints by the artists was their way of creating accuracy and perfection. As modern day people have found, the pigments suspended in the oil paints, which have lasted until current years have slowly turned brown, and therefore have demanded attention in the form of cleaning. France C18-19- Adopting basically the same principle of painting, although lesser applied, Jean Simà ©on Chardin, a self taught artist situated in Paris acquired his acclaimed reputation as still life’s foremost artist. Self-taught, his thick, rather textured technique suited every middle and capital class (bourgeoisie (who made the French revolution and Impressionism)) household. Many pieces were minuscule, and all his pieces showed off his skills as an artist. Elevating to look at such as â€Å"The Jar of Apricot† and â€Å"The Ray† (1758), the depth and use of reflections were mesmerising and peaceful. Paris turn of C20-This was the phase when artists really started to adopt new styles to express there ideas. Braque, Picasso, Cezanne, Picasso and Matisse were the fore founders, innovating cubism, block colours, experimental studio time, and a different way of perceiving art by twisting the laws of perspective. Now artists would churn out many more pieces, for now, no longer would apiece take months and months to complete. Particular pieces of the above artists’ work include: â€Å"Lemons against a Fleur De Lys background† (Matisse-1943), â€Å"Still Life with a Chair Caning† (Picasso 1911-12), and â€Å"Still-life with a Plaster Cupid† (Cezanne-1895).

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Israeli politics and the position of Palestinians in the conflict Essay

The U S and Israel are engaged in extensive strategic Like political and military American aids to Israel specially in project allocations and loans intelligence sharing As according to Lt. Col Abo-sak said that U. S relation with middle east specially focus on America’s involvement in the Palestinian-Israeli crisis . There are few reasons that Israel always stand by American side. The first is that American military ensure security of nation and trade and access to maintain all the facilities of the Israel. American and Israel signed memorandum of understanding which say’s that there would be close security co-operation and co-ordination between the Governments of these two countries. These two nations mutually agree to stand together against terrorism and co-operate in information sharing, investigation, research, and development of policy making. In December 2005 both the state signed agreement to joint against the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive material this agreement is the part of the non- proliferation program of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security 2. In 1993 Israel and Palestine signed the declaration of principles to create peace between the two countries. After a radical Israeli opposed to the peace process assassinated Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, the Labor party lost the Israeli election of 1996, giving away to the Likud party led by Benjamin Netanyahu. According to Karen (1991) the new government did not commit itself to the peace accords signed by the previous Israeli government, and the peace process was slowed to a standstill giving way to war. A) What happened during Ehud Barak and Ariel Sharon’s Administrations? During his tenure Barak really work lot on the Israel economic sector and he solve the case of the recession and make boom in economic with 5. 9% annual growth and there was zero inflation, and his Government basically focuses on the peace making process and he led to effort to negotiate on peace making agreement 1stly he went to Syria and later to Palestinian authority with the help of the American ex- president bill Clinton and his administration some how these negotiation didn’t work out. Mr. Barak also said that the whole government is for the national interest and for the looming security challenges and the economic crisis as he also mentioned that labor can play major role for the counterforce inside the government and labor party ‘s dominant role in shaping the Israeli state . After the Barak ,Ariel Sharon became the new prime minster of the Israel and he also negotiate with the Palestinian leader for the peace making process and said that Israel is also full of Jewish population and there should be complete co-operation among two countries and it should be united and indivisible for eternity . The new Israeli government violated the terms of the peace accord by, among other things, building new Israeli settlements in occupied lands, also in contravention of the international law. b) What role have the Palestinians played in this? And what has Hamas done? Palestinians was completely agree to establish peace within and with other countries so far its known that earlier Palestine was completely under the control of Israel and many people of Palestine was homeless and moved to the other countries as refugees and that the conflict had been fight to bring refugees back to Palestine and therefore this was the ultimate reason for the peace process from the Palestine ,such group like Hamas which work for the peace in Palestine and Hamas is also know as terrorist group. Hamas is the largest and most influential Palestinian militant. In January 2006, the group won the Palestinian Authority’s (PA) general legislative elections, and defeated Fatah; the party of the PA’s president, Mahmud Abbas, since coming in power, Hamas has continued refuses to recognize the state of Israel. Historically, Hamas has sponsored an extensive social service network. This group also operated a terrorist wing, carrying out suicide bombings and attacks using mortars and short-range rockets. Hamas is not a terrorist group it is an addition of military wing The basic goal of the Hamas is combined with Palestinian nationalism with Islamic fundamentalism it was to replace PA of Israel with an Islamism state on the west bank and Gaza and to rise the banner of the Allah in whole Palestine . 3. Applying peaceful facts in accordance with the principles of the US constitution would prevent the USA from making bias decisions that are constantly being made by the administrators against Arabs. a) Explain and give examples of these peaceful facts that can be used. The united state Institute of peace (USIP) seeks to here a fair move toward to its work connecting to Arab-Israeli relations by supporting investigate, program and grants that get better sympathetic, expand ability and study the issues in ways that can be helpful to all parties who are looking for peace. Arab-Israeli relationships have deteriorated to their lowly point in an age band, with increasing and widening cruelty. However, the harshness of the evils may force the parties to think again long-stagnant issue and make opportunity for new efforts to decide the disagreement. In order to grab on the forecast for renewing discussions, USIP is conducting both policy-relevant investigation and pioneering training in hold of local initiatives to put up sustain for peace. 4. In the past, the United States officials were on the side of the Israelis and gave bias opinion on the Arabs creating a condition of animosity and terror between the two countries. a) Give examples of this. American strategy in the Middle East has had few successes to speak of—smaller amount still when bearing in mind the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. One reason: With few exceptions (President Carter certainly, President Clinton occasionally), Arabs in general and Palestinians in exacting have not trusted American negotiators, who have always taken sides—Israel’s. The last time American mediation achieved an absolute success was from side to side the Camp David agreement of 1979, when Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty and Israel ceded back the Sinai to Egypt. Last 60 years the United States has claimed a dominant role in Middle East issues. But its evidence is poor. Concerning the Palestinians, it’s almost negligible. Americans have little trust in Palestinian eyes. There’s a reason why. As Aaron David Miller explain in The Much Too Promised Land , each American presidential management live a mediating position in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict takes it for decided that it’s on Israel’s side first and foremost. This is not only the matter of ideology. Miller describes how each text, every peace plan, and every accord that the Americans presented in Palestinian-Israeli talks over the years were vetted first through Israeli negotiators. Ronald Reagan once, in September 1982, announces a peace plan without first informing the Israelis. United States is not only violating the Camp David accords but also the U. S. promise to ask with Israel before responsibility such a plan. As Begin fluctuate between anger, tired acceptance, and a hurt resentment, it became clear that what set him off most was the American choice to organize the proposal in go onward with both the Jordanians and the Saudis. 5. President Obama must now ensure that the historical mistakes that were made by the past regime that lead to massive killings and displacement are not repeated during his reign as the president of the US. To ensure that his legacy remains in the book of records; US human rights groups, non-governmental organizations and research centers hat has been continuously supported by the United Nations to give a conflicting information that has increased insecurity and fear between the two nations. a) How can president Obama do this? â€Å"President Barack Obama said on Wednesday Israeli plans to build more homes near East Jerusalem were not helpful for the Middle East peace process, but he said the issue had not led to a crisis with one of the United States’ closest allies†. In an interview with FORX news channel’s president Obama said that ‘Israel is one of the closed allies of the America and American and Israeli people have special relationship and bond and that not going away. ’ He also mentioned that there is dissimilarity in terms of peace making process. Whatever action has been taken by Prime Minister (Netanyahu) of Israel didn’t work out so he said that what America need now is both side to recognize and to realize that this move of peace is for their nation interest. 6. Discuss USA’s views towards the conflict in the cold war and during the peace process. Due to cold war the United States became intensely occupied in the Middle East after 1945. U. S. officials required constancy in the Middle East on behalf of their objectives in the area and about the world. Stability in the area, these leaders unspecified, would help them safeguard their essential wellbeing and succeed in the Cold War. The Arab-Israeli conflict directly threatened Middle East stability in the late 1940s and 1950s. Israel refused to send home Arab Palestinian refugees, who became a political reason for the leaders of Arab states. Limitations on trade and shipping and disagreement about territorial restrictions and waterways bitter all of the protagonists. Despite the significance of Arab-Israeli peace to regional constancy, however, U. S. officials subsume their peacemaking to other Cold War interests. Government of USA tempered its devotion to conflict resolution with a determination to deny the Soviets any chance to gain political power in the Middle East. In the end, the United States unsuccessful to resolve the overall Arab-Israeli conflict or any of its exact dispute. The United States became fixed in the middle of the Arab-Israeli conflict. U. S. officials felt bound by their global repression policy to intercede in the Arab-Israeli conflict and to protect sound relations with all sides of the argument. U. S. has strategic approach in the direction of the Arab-Israeli argument during the first two presidential administrations after World War II. . Reference: Abo-Sak, Lieutenant Colonel Mohammed F. (1999) US Involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Solution or Complication? Retrieved on 1 May 2010 from http://www. alhewar. com/LtCol. htm Abo-Sak, Lieutenant Colonel Mohammed F. [â€Å"Gaza: New Dynamics of Civic Disintegration† Journal of Palestinian Studies, Summer 1993] Special REPORT with Bret Baier Barack Obama (17th march 2010) available at topics. nytimes. com Hahn, P L (2004) Caught in the Middle East U. S. Policy toward the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1945-1961 Abstract available and Retrieved on 1 May 2010 from http://uncpress. unc. edu/browse/page/393 Tristam P, (n. d. ) America’s Pro-Israel Bias: Why the United States Takes Israel’s Side A Long-Standing Commitment to Israel in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Retrieved on 1 May 2010 from http://middleeast. about. com/od/arabisraeliconflict/a/me080707. htm Israel and Saudi Arabia Retrieved on 1 May 2010 from http://www. usip. org/countries-continents

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Organ Donation A Right or a Wish Essay - 1015 Words

A family is grieving. Their seventeen year old daughter was just pronounced brain dead after extensive treatment following a motor vehicle accident left her life sustained only by machines working in place of her vital organs. Midwest transplant team was notified to talk to the family about saving other’s lives by donating their daughter’s organs. On the patient’s driver’s license was a little heart showing her wish to be an organ donor, but because of her minor status, her wish was not legal consent. According to Midwest Transplant Network (2010), Kansas was designated a consent state as of July 1st, 2010. This means that anyone over the age of 18 can legally register to be a donor and not have that right revoked by next of kin after†¦show more content†¦Autonomy literally means self-governing. It is the principle that allows clients to have the freedom to make choices about all issues that affect their life (Burkhardt Nathaniel, 2007). By allow ing patients to be autonomous they are able to make decisions about their care, issues, desires, and what happens to them or their body after death. Autonomy is not possible without the respect of others to allow their wishes to be carried out. Though the client is only 17 years old and thus a minor, autonomy is still her right. It is being compromised when others are going against her wish to be a donor. (2010) encourages all who wish to donate their organs in occurrence of death to inform their family and make their wishes known, because it is their right to make such a decision for themselves. This is a serious decision and if important to someone then they should be able to talk about it and make sure their family is willing to follow through with their wishes. Fidelity is the principle relating to faithfulness and keeping promises (Burkhardt Nathaniel, 2007). 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